With technology, spoken language has become one of the major interests among linguists. Previously, written discourse was the main concern as it was easy to access any data whereas spoken language needed to go through various levels such as recording and transcribing in order to be able to obtain authentic data. Though it may sound easy, sometimes restrictions such as a low quality voice recorder was used or difficulty in transcribing slang would make it difficult for a linguist to go into detail of the spoken discourse. Today, with access to computer corpora's, it is feasible to obtain relevant information with regards to spoken language. (Biber, Johansson, Leech, Condrad & Finegan, 1999).
In recent research, similar to written language, spoken language has been looked at through various aspects. one of the major concerns surrounding spoken language is the grammatical form of this discourse. Biber, Johansson, Leech, Condrad & Finegan (1999) states that the same English grammar can be applied to both spoken and written language however research shows that the two use these grammatical features differently.
This essay will be referring to a conversation between two friends in a restaurant, whose main objective is to order food for lunch, together. Their conversation also includes a waitress who is taking down their orders. It will be analyzing key features that are present within the conversation, primarily looking at its grammatical features, followed by its discourse feature and also discussing its lexical features found within the conversation.
This essay will also be looking at the differences between written language and spoken language in terms of the grammar, discourse and lexical features. ...
... middle of paper ...
...0). Mostly, in spoken language, the context and the purpose of the conversation plays a role in deciding how grammar is used. Leech (2000) further points out that even though they share the same grammar, it carries less weight in spoken language.
Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., and Finegan, E. (1999) Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. London: Longman. Carter, R. and McCarthy, M. (1995) Grammar and the Spoken Language. Applied Linguistics 16, 2. 41-58.
Carter, R. and McCarthy, M.1997 Exploring Spoken English . Cambridge: CUP.
Downing, A., & Locke, P. (2006) English Grammar London: Routledge
Leech, G. (2000) Grammars of Spoken English: new outcomes of corpus –oriented research. Language Learning 50,4, 675-724.
McCarthy, M. and Carter, R. (1995) Spoken Grammar: what is it and how can we teach it? ELT Journal 49, 3.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- In this essay I intend to investigate how differently one of the closed word classes, determiners, are approached in a series of pre and post corpus-based English grammar reference books, course books and practice books. And the theme of my investigation is how corpus affects the development of English teaching materials. The grammar reference books I intend to analyze and compare are “A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language” (ACGEL) and “Cambridge Grammar of English” (CGE). The former is an indispensable grammar reference book first published in 1985, which has been widely consulted in researches in relation to English linguistic studies, while the later offers clear explanations of... [tags: grammar, books, teaching]
2158 words (6.2 pages)
- Abstract This paper serves as an introductory investigation into the grammar of spoken English. More specifically, this paper will analyze selected features of spoken language which are significantly different from written language or features of spoken language not found in written language. The features analyzed also have a high rate of occurrence in the spoken language. The ultimate goal of this investigation is the development of English Language Teaching materials which will address the features detailed.... [tags: Linguistics]
2380 words (6.8 pages)
- We often assume, consciously or subconsciously, that non-standard varieties of English are inferior to Standard American English (SAE). Indeed, the general public at-large views SAE as more "correct" than other dialects of English (such as Black Vernacular English). However, linguists such as Victoria Fromkin, Robert Rodman, George Gadda, William Labov, John McWhorter, and L.M. Myers view the notion of a "standard" variety of English as illusory. They argue that the designations of language varieties as "standard" or "non-standard" are based on socioeconomics and politics, rather than logic; other dialects are, in fact, as logical as SAE.... [tags: English language, Dialect, Grammar]
1104 words (3.2 pages)
- Grammar delineates the forms of language that are actually used by native speakers. In addition, grammar elucidates how the forms of language function in units we call sentences. Cognizance of grammar allows one to think about how language structures are used to get meaning across, leading to more effective communication in oral and written prose (Zellig). Traditional grammar focuses on morphemes, words, phrases, clauses and sentences but leaves out phonemes, paragraphs and whole texts. Advanced grammar includes the latter and allows one to develop a better understanding of grammar because of those three additional items.... [tags: classroom discourse analysis, literary structures]
3046 words (8.7 pages)
- When English Language Learners, educators across the country (and globe) embark on adventure that enriches not only the lives of their students, but their own lives as well. As I have learned through my personal experiences at International Newcomer Academy (Fort Worth, TX), ELL classrooms are special because they bring all involved back to their early days. Learning language and in particular grammar takes us as humans back to our beginnings when we first were children appreciating the beauty of the world and trying to communicate with others.... [tags: Education, Teacher, Linguistics, ZOOM]
1114 words (3.2 pages)
- The basic purpose of teaching the target language through this method is to be able to read literature writen in the target language. This can be reached by learning grammar rules and vocabulary of the target language.The main principles on which the grammar- translation method is based are the following: • Grammar is taught deductively and than practiced through translation excercises. • The primary skills to be developed are reading and writing • Hardly any attention is paid to speaking and listening • The goal of foreign language learning is to gain the ability to understand the texts written in the foreign language • Teacher's correction is the only way to make students produce the right... [tags: language, vocabulary, rules]
711 words (2 pages)
- Middle English (1100 AD to 1500 AD) The year 1066 is one of the most important years in the history of the English language. This is the year that the Normans invaded England. The Normans were a group of people who lived on the other side of the English Channel. Though the people of the area originally spoke a variation of the Scandinavian languages, eventually, the group learned French as Edward the Confessor brought French language into his court in Normandy. In January 1066, the English king died without an heir, so the Norman king at the time, William the Conqueror decided to invade England and by December of the same year, he was crowned King of England.... [tags: England, English language, Middle English]
1304 words (3.7 pages)
- Its time to come clean, face the facts and admit the truth - students are scared of grammar. From the days of crayons and nap time straight through high school they always hope and pray that a random fire drill, a.k.a. a gift from God, will disrupt the dreaded grammar lessons and exercises. As the semesters continue to pass by students become elated as grammar turns into nothing more than a minute beep on the radar screen that is the weekly lesson plan. However, nearly every student walks into English class dealing with the fear that he will be called on to explain even the simplest rules of possession or number.... [tags: English Writing Teacher Student]
2300 words (6.6 pages)
- Grammar and the Role of Writing Center Tutors as Teachers of Grammar Communication in any form requires a protocol. The evolution of language from sounds into words is proof of that. People recognized that in order for two people to understand each other, they must have a common code that will allow each one to transmit and receive signals accurately. If the word “red” signified two different colors to two different people, for example, then there would be a breakdown of communication. Language has grown complex over time and in its current form, it enables users to communicate with precision and nuance.... [tags: Teaching Writing Grammer Education]
6463 words (18.5 pages)
- Grammar in the Classroom A large part of an English teacher’s job deals with helping students find their own voices amidst the many teachings of their parents and peers. A student’s voice can be their values, their interests, and their perspectives of the world in which they live. Their voice can be their critical questioning of the many situations they face, whether in a text, the school cafeteria, or a park after school. It is the job of an English teacher to aid in finding this voice through their writing.... [tags: Teachers Education Language Essays]
1399 words (4 pages)